R-10 ,R-11 ,R-12 GASES

آصرة تساهمية


Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compoundwith the chemical formulaCCl4.

It was formerly widely used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerantsand as a cleaning agent.

It is a colourless liquid with a “sweet” smell that can be detected at low levels.

It has practically no flammabilityat lower temperatures.



It was the first widely used refrigerant. Because of its high boiling point (compared to most refrigerants), it can be used in systems with a low operating pressure, making the mechanical design of such systems less demanding than that of higher-pressure refrigerants R-12or R-22.
R-11 is assigned an ozone depletion potential 1.0, and U.S. production was ended in January 1, 1996.
Trichlorofluoromethane is used as a reference compound for fluorine-19 NMRstudies

Prior to the knowledge of the ozone depletion potential of chlorine in refrigerants and other possible harmful effects on the environment, trichlorofluoromethane was sometimes used as a cleaning/rinsing agent for low-pressure systems






Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbonhalomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerantand aerosol spray propellant.

Complying with the Montreal Protocol, its manufacture was banned in developed countries (non-article 5 countries) in 1996, and developing countries (article 5 countries) in 2010 due to concerns about its damaging impact to the ozone layer.
Its only allowed usage is as fire retardant in submarines and aircraft.

It is soluble in many organic solvents.

Dichlorodifluoromethane was one of the original propellants for Silly String. R- 12 cylinders are colored white.

مايو 25, 2017

الوسوم:, , ,
  • اترك تعليقاً

    لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني.